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Mesothelioma: All About It

By | January 29, 2020

The most common form of cancer is malignant pleural mesothelioma, which occurs in the lung lining called the pleura and is the result of inhaling asbestos fibers.

Pleural mesothelioma is the most deadly form of mesothelioma, based on the number of people diagnosed.
Lung pleural mesothelioma is not only the most common type of mesothelioma used to diagnose people, but also a type closely related to exposure to asbestos products and work.

Mesothelioma is a cancer that attacks a tissue called mesothelioma, a lining that covers and protects many internal organs.
Pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma is responsible for the majority of 2,000 to 3,000 new cases that are diagnosed each year in the United States.
Less common types of mesothelioma are pericardial mesothelioma, which affects the lining around the heart and testicular mesothelioma.

Mesothelioma is a cancer of mesothelioma that lines and protects tissues that line important organs, such as the heart, lungs and stomach, and the inner wall of the body. Mesothelioma is a rare but aggressive cancer that is most often caused by asbestos. Because it is so rare and symptoms are often associated with other common problems, diagnosing mesothelioma can be difficult.

The signs and symptoms of other types of mesothelioma are unclear because these forms of the disease are very rare. Pericardial mesothelioma, which affects the tissue surrounding the heart, can cause signs and symptoms such as difficulty breathing and chest pain. Mesothelioma tuica vaginalis, which affects the tissue surrounding the testicles, can first be diagnosed as swelling or mass on the testicle.

Signs and symptoms associated with it are relatively non-specific and can be seen in almost all benign or malignant processes of the chest. Chest wall pain can be a relatively unique symptom, usually referred to as focal pain. The fullness or mass of soft tissue can be felt and the breathing sounds are cloudy from beating due to pleural effusion. Pleural plaques are common, and 1 in 5 patients develop bibasilar fibrosis, which is characteristic of chronic asbestosis.

Symptoms of pleural mesothelioma include shortness of breath, chest pain, difficulty breathing, malaise and fatigue. Severe pain occurs when mesothelioma cancer cells grow and spread to the lungs. Simple actions, such as coughing, breathing and swallowing, can cause severe pain and make cancer become one of the most difficult to bear.

Pleural mesothelioma in the lungs usually occurs in people older than 50 years.

Symptoms of pleural mesothelioma may include coughing, shortness of breath (shortness of breath), chest pain, fatigue and weakness.

Over the years, several mesothelioma grading systems have been used that apply almost exclusively to primary pleural mesothelioma. Regardless of the histological subtype: pleura (stage I), chest wall or mediastinal invasion (stage II), peritoneal or diaphragmatic penetration (stage III) or distant metastases (stage IV). Meanwhile, the Brigham system attempts to define the surgical resection and lymph node involvement. If pleural fluid is obtained, large volumes should be collected and cytospin should be analyzed to increase diagnostic accuracy. Thoracoscopic biopsies with direct visualization of pleural nodes ensure the best performance.

Neoplasms of sarcomatoids (malignant spindle cells) are automatically classified as stage IV, which is generally classified as inoperable and has the worst prognosis.
Clinical picture: shortness of breath, non-puritic chest pain and cough due to pleural effusion.
Patients may also be asymptomatic and have chest wall mass, pleural effusion or other pleural pathology during imaging.
The histological subtype has higher performance in surgical biopsy compared to radiological biopsies.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (mpm) is a rare, locally invasive, fatal malignant tumor associated with asbestosis that is difficult to diagnose and treat.
The life expectancy after diagnosis of MPM without treatment is less than 6 months. Asbestos is still used with restrictions in cement, ceiling tiles, brake linings and shipbuilding. The histological subtype is an important prognostic factor and also determines the offer of therapy.

In a large surgical series, Flores et al. 28 found that the median survival was 15.8 months in 176 patients treated for pleurectomy and hemiplegia. The variables included the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and even surgical approaches in specific studies. However, in the modern era of more frequent use of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, a more conservative approach to surgery should be considered. Photodynamic therapy has been approved for some malignancies, but remains experimental for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

By determining the stage, the doctor can determine the size and location of the tumor, as well as the progression of the tumor and can help in choosing a therapy. Stage 1 is considered a localized disease, while stages 2, 3 and 4 are considered advanced mesothelioma.
The first phase identifies patients who are not eligible for surgery and who can receive palliative treatment and medication to alleviate symptoms.
The mesothelioma stages are based on the recommendations of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group.

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